Quantum Computing: A New Era of Computing

Quantum Computing: A New Era of Computing

History:

●A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically.

●Charles Babbage, an English mechanical engineer and polymath, originated the concept of a programmable computer.

●First generation: 1937 – 1946 – In 1937 the first electronic digital computer was built by Dr. John V. Atanasoff and Clifford Berry. It was called the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC). In 1943 an electronic computer name the Colossus was built for the military. Other developments continued until in 1946 the first general– purpose digital computer, the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC) was built.

[QU]BIT OF QUANTUM HISTORY:

What is a qubit?

What is a quantum computer look like?

QUANTUM RESOURCES for COMPUTING

  • Super Position
  • Entanglement
  • Quantum Interference

These three weird quantum properties enable the design of quantum algorithms which can compute in ways classical computers cannot, making quantum computers more powerful for solving certain types of problems.

Quantum Superposition:

●SCHRODINGER’S CAT EXPERIMENT: This experiment gives us the basic idea of superposition i.e Two possible states at a time.

●Quantum Superposition: Quantum object can be in two states at once!

● a qubit can be |0⟩and |1⟩at the same time!  This is how we show it: |𝜓⟩= 𝛼|0⟩+ 𝛽|1⟩

Quantum entanglement

●Quantum entanglement is the name given to a special connection between pairs or groups of quantum systems, or any objects described by quantum mechanics. Quantum entanglement is one of the biggest parts of quantum mechanics that makes it hard to understand in terms of the everyday world.

●Einstein termed it as the “spooky” because of the instantaneousness of the apparent remote interaction between two entangled particles.

●Researchers can generate pairs of qubits that are “entangled,” which means the two members of a pair exist in a single quantum state. Changing the state of one of the qubits will instantaneously change the state of the other one in a predictable way.

Quantum interference:

●Interference is the situation where intervention from noise in the environment damages the quantum object, and also the possibility that the wave functions of particles can either reinforce or diminish each other.

●Result of two classical coin flips: 50 % 0 , 50 % 1   

●Result of two hadamard gates on |0 ⟩ : 100 % |0 ⟩

●The states involved in quantum superposition can cancel or amplify

Applications:

Quantum cryptography:

●Cryptography is the process of encrypting data, or converting plain text into scrambled text so that only someone who has the right “key” can read it. Quantum cryptography, by extension, simply uses the principles of quantum mechanics to encrypt data and transmit it in a way that cannot be hacked.

●While the definition sounds simple, the complexity lies in the principles of quantum mechanics behind quantum cryptography, such as:

1.The particles that make up the universe are inherently uncertain and can simultaneously exist in more than one place or more than one state of being.

2.Photons are generated randomly in one of two quantum states.

3.You can’t measure a quantum property without changing or disturbing it.         4.You can clone some quantum properties of a particle, but not the whole particle.

Conclusion:

Quantum computing has evolved over the years and so has the career opportunities that this marvellous technology offers. It has evolved from fundamental tech jargons to how to build a quantum computer and share it over the cloud. This is a mammoth step translating from quantum science to quantum ready.

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Kesav Nagendra

Hi readers, Hope you are all doing well. I am an young enthusiast in writing blogs. I am currently doing my bachelor of engineering in Vellore institute of technology. if you want send me feed back please contact me at : [email protected]